In Part II, we explored some of the cognitive strategies that students might employ as they work toward making increasingly useful predictions in their reading. In addition, some examples of what teachers often do to encourage that cognitive activity were presented. Now, we turn our attention to the specific instructional routines that teachers can use in an effort to encourage the sort of cognitive activity that characterizes good thinking while engaged in literacy tasks.
At several points in this book, we have encouraged you to continue doing what we are confident you have always done; that is, make conscious and precise decisions about teaching methodologies and classroom structures that promote good thinking and improved ability when a literacy task is encountered. Sharing those philosophies or approaches with other teachers or administrators can inform the choices about which cognitive strategies or instructional routines might best be used universally and transparently throughout a school’s curriculum (e. g., Fisher, Frey, & Williams, 2002). However, overwhelming your teaching colleagues or students with an extensive list of instructional routines and cognitive strategies is unlikely to produce a desired result. Therefore, our first challenge to you is to initiate a dialogue with your colleagues about which routines might be most beneficial for the specific student population sitting in your classroom.